The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released six draft guidance documents related to gene therapy. Three of the guidance documents are disease-specific, and three are related to manufacturing. According to Scott Gottlieb, MD, FDA Commissioner, these documents are the building blocks of the FDA’s framework for advancing gene therapy while requiring safety and effectiveness. The guidance is part of the FDA’s efforts to provide clear recommendations to sponsors and researchers.
The FDA highlights the importance of establishing standardized procedures for cell collection and handling across all collection sites for multi-center clinical trials to assure the quality and safety of the final product as well as ensuring control of the manufacturing process. A list of collection sites, the FDA Establishment Identifier, and accreditations for compliance with established standards (e.g., Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy) should be included in the IND.
Additional Manufacturing Draft Guidance Documents
Disease-Specific Draft Guidance Documents
FACT-accredited organizations are regulated by several governmental agencies around the world in relation to quality and safety of cellular therapy products and reimbursement. When draft regulations or guidance documents are released, FACT committees review the information and submit comments as applicable to the scope of FACT accreditation. In the past decade, comments have been submitted to agencies in the United States, Australia, and Europe. The FACT Global Affairs Committee also supports cellular therapy leaders in developing countries to encourage use of FACT Standards.
So far this year, FACT has submitted comments on three topics to two agencies in the United States:
- Docket No. FDA-2017-D-6154 for “Evaluation of Devices Used with Regenerative Medicine Advanced Therapies; Draft Guidance for Industry”; submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on February 9, 2018.
- Docket No. FDA-2017-D-6159 for “Expedited Programs for Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Serious Conditions; Draft Guidance for Industry”; submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on February 9, 2018.
- National Coverage Analysis for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell Therapy for Cancers; submitted to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on June 15, 2018.
FACT also plans to review the recently published FDA draft guidance documents for gene therapies. These comments are due by October 10, 2018. If you have input you would like FACT to consider for inclusion, submit those to Kara Wacker at email@example.com by August 31, 2018.
Requirements for Qualifying Third-Party Manufacturers of Cellular Therapy Products Regulated Under U.S. INDs or BLAs
In light of the recent licensing of immune effector cell (IEC) products in the United States, this is an opportune time to continue education regarding third-party manufacturers in general. The manufacturing process for many novel cellular therapy products, including research and licensed cellular therapy products, involves multiple entities: holders of Investigational New Drug (IND) applications for research or Biological License Applications (BLA) for licensure, collection facilities, and processing facilities. Clinical units may be involved with one or more of these facilities.
There are three main responsibilities when third-parties are involved in the manufacture of a research or licensed product: verify regulatory oversight, qualify the vendor or service provider, and define responsibilities.
Though many questions from organizations regarding these requirements are specific to IEC processes, the information below can also be used as guidelines for other types of cellular therapy products.
Verify Regulatory Oversight
- The participating manufacturer (e.g., collection or processing facility) is responsible for verifying that the contracting entity for whom it performs services possesses an approved IND or BLA.
- The Clinical Program is responsible for verifying the manufacturer responsible for the entire manufacturing process (e.g., a commercial manufacturer) possesses an approved IND or BLA.
Qualify the Third-Party Manufacturer
- The IND or BLA holder is responsible for verifying that any facility performing a step of manufacturing complies with GMP and GTP requirements as applicable (see 21 CFR 1271.150(c)(1)(iii)).
- If the IND or BLA is held internally by a FACT-accredited facility, then the facility must perform this qualification and provide documentation to FACT inspectors.
- If the IND or BLA is external, i.e., held by a third-party investigator or manufacturer, this qualification is outside the scope of FACT accreditation and the FACT-accredited facility is not required to provide documentation of this type of qualification to FACT inspectors.
The participating manufacturer must participate in site visits from the IND or BLA holder and provide the level of service required of that entity, including compliance with GMP and GTP requirements as applicable. FACT-accredited facilities that participate in manufacturing for external IND or BLA holders must provide FACT inspectors evidence of complying with these requirements as required by applicable laws and regulations.
- The Clinical Program must perform vendor qualification of the IND or BLA holder. It is the FDA that monitors regulatory compliance, and the Clinical Program only needs to perform vendor qualification. Programs must verify the IND or BLA holder meets its needs in regards to many areas of cellular therapy, including labeling processes (label content applied by whom and how), level of service (turnaround times, customer inquiries), and other metrics defined by the program. Documentation of this qualification must be provided to the FACT inspection team.
- It is acceptable to delegate this activity to the Processing Facility so long as there is robust communication between the program and facility, which should be obvious in documentation.
- The level of participation of the clinical service in manufacturing an immune effector cell product varies. Regardless of where the product is collected or manufactured, responsibilities must be clearly defined.
- If a Clinical Program is responsible for collecting cells or preparing the IEC product for administration, or if independently FACT-accredited cell collection and processing facilities contract with a manufacturer, FACT Standards for collection and processing apply to the steps performed.
- If products are received directly by the Clinical Program or intermediary facility (e.g., blood bank, pharmacy) from a third-party manufacturer, the following responsibilities must be defined at a minimum: chain of custody, product storage, verification of product identity, and management of adverse events. Additional responsibilities will be included in the new edition of FACT Standards to be published in March 2018.
The 20th year of FACT successfully built upon its history of successes to advance cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. As physicians and scientists continue to make advancements, opportunities arise for FACT to play a supporting role to educate all programs on new approaches and therapies. The following are highlights from 2016:
1. FACT Celebrates 20th Anniversary
FACT celebrated its 20th year as the leading organization in standards setting and accreditation for cellular therapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and regenerative medicine. FACT welcomed visitors to a dynamic exhibit booth at the BMT Tandem Meetings and the ISCT Annual Meeting to celebrate with the organization. Attendees who wore their commemorative FACT 20th anniversary pin received gifts and were entered in a daily drawing for prizes.
FACT also hosted anniversary receptions at these meetings, and many FACT colleagues, volunteers, and friends enjoyed hors d’oeuvres and refreshments as FACT celebrated two decades of working together in the community to improve patient care and safety. Guests enjoyed watching a short video highlighting FACT’s past 20 years, and saw some familiar faces who have been an integral part of FACT since its beginning.
2. FACT Commences Review of Corrective Action Plans for Low One-Year Survival
The FACT Clinical Outcomes Improvement Committee began formally reviewing corrective action plans submitted by Clinical Programs that did not meet expected one-year survival as outlined by comparative data. The emphasis of the committee is to help programs identify ways to improve their outcomes for patients. After several months of reviewing corrective action plans, the committee has articulated its expectations for these plans using six guidelines:
- The corrective action plan must identify specific causes of death.
- The corrective action plan must provide quantitative data.
- The assessment must identify reasonable causes of the low one-year survival rate.
- The corrective action plan must address the identified causes.
- There must be a measurable outcome improvement.
- The program must provide updates on corrective actions at the time of inspection, at the time of annual reporting, or as otherwise directed by the committee.
3. FACT Presents Comments at FDA Hearing
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hearing to obtain comments on the four draft guidance documents relating to the regulation of human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps) occurred on September 12-13, 2016. Dr. Phyllis Warkentin spoke on behalf of FACT and presented the following comments to the FDA:
- FDA should fulfill its responsibilities to protect patients in search of cellular therapies. FACT supports its parent society, the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), in its position on unproven therapies and agrees on the importance of providing adequate education for patients. Development of professional standards and voluntary accreditation can play an important role in providing a bridge from basic research to clinical application.
- The tiered unified approach to HCT/P regulation fails to acknowledge the complexity of some tissues with multiple native functions and many cell types. It is difficult to strictly categorize complex tissues such as adipose tissue as only structural or cellular. Dr. Warkentin offered solutions for applying regulations to such tissues.
- There appear to be some inconsistencies in the definitions and examples of homologous use that would benefit from clarification.
- FACT suggests that the Agency expand upon its expectation for cord tissue, to include which regulations apply and when they apply, based upon the processes in place.
- International harmonization is important to facilitate product development and world-wide availability of cell-based therapies for patients.
4. Sixth Edition NetCord-FACT Cord Blood Standards Published
NetCord and FACT published the 6th edition NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release for Administration and its accompanying Accreditation Manual on July 1, 2016. These Standards became effective after 90 days, and all accredited cord blood banks were required to comply with the requirements by that time.
These Standards cover 1) collection of cord blood cells, regardless of the methodology or site of collection; 2) screening, testing, and eligibility determination of the maternal and infant donor according to Applicable Law; 3) all phases of processing, cryopreservation, and storage, including quarantine, testing, and characterization of the cord blood unit; 4) making the cord blood unit available for administration, either directly or through listing with a search registry; 5) the search process for selection of specific cord blood units; 6) reservation and release of cord blood units for clinical use; and 7) all transport or shipment of cord blood units, whether fresh or cryopreserved.
5. Draft 1st Edition Immune Effector Cell Standards Published for Public Comment
FACT published a draft of the 1st edition FACT Standards for Immune Effector Cells for inspection and public comment in July 2016. Interim standards for the 6th edition FACT-JACIE International Standards for Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Product Collection, Processing, and Administration were also proposed to include immune effector cell programs within blood and marrow transplant units. These Standards are intended to promote quality in administration of immune effector cells and will be incorporated into a voluntary FACT accreditation in this field.
The Standards apply to immune effector cells used to modulate an immune response for therapeutic intent, such as dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells. This includes chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) and therapeutic vaccines.
Commenters included, among others, pharmaceutical companies, the FDA, the American Society of Cell & Gene Therapy (ASGCT), and the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). A total of 131 comments were received, and reviewers generally expressed support for the Standards and posed worthy questions to consider.
6. CYCORD is First Cord Blood Bank in Cyprus to Earn FACT Accreditation
CYCORD Public Allogeneic Cord Blood Bank in Cyprus received internationally recognized FACT accreditation. CYCORD, directed by Paul Costeas, PhD, is the first and only cord blood bank in Cyprus to be recognized by FACT. The bank received accreditation on June 13, 2016, and is accredited for banking cord blood for both public and private family use.
7. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Servicio de Hematología Hospital Universitario is First Cellular Therapy Program in Mexico to Earn FACT Accreditation
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Servicio de Hematología Hospital Universitario in Mexico received internationally recognized FACT accreditation. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Servicio de Hematología Hospital Universitario, directed by David Gomez-Almaguer, MD, is the first and only cellular therapy program in Mexico to be recognized by FACT. The program received accreditation on September 6, 2016, and is accredited for Adult and Pediatric Allogeneic and Autologous Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation, Peripheral Blood Cellular Therapy Product Collection, and Cellular Therapy Product Processing.
8. StemCyte India Therapeutics is First Cord Blood Bank in India to Earn FACT Accreditation
StemCyte India Therapeutics Cord Blood Bank, directed by Bhavin Kapadiya, MD, is the first and only cord blood bank in India to be recognized by FACT. The bank received accreditation on December 21, 2016, and is accredited for banking cord blood for both public and private family use.
9. FACT Hosts Quality Initiatives with Parent Organizations
FACT hosted a Quality Boot Camp at the annual meeting of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT). The goal of the boot camp program is to strengthen quality assurance activities through pre-meeting exercises and an in-person workshop. Members of the FACT Quality Committee encouraged registrants in the months leading to the in-person workshop to review specific aspects of their quality programs. Quality experts then presented important concepts and led roundtables that allowed participants to ask questions and help each other reach their goals during the boot camp. FACT also partnered with ISCT at their regional meeting to co-host sessions in the Quality and Operations Track. Presentations focused on outcome analysis from the processing perspective and the anatomy of an audit.
10. New Webinar Collaboration Between ASHI and FACT
FACT and the American Society for Histocompatibility (ASHI) began collaborating to offer webinars on transplant immunology. Establishing best practices in transplant immunology in different parts of the world requires both deep understanding of the unique challenges that face different parts of the world, and building on the experiences of well-established labs and international histocompatibility professional societies.
11. FACT Joins Standards Coordinating Body as a Charter Member
The Advancing Standards in Regenerative Medicine Act directs the Secretary of the United States Health and Human Services Agency to establish a public-private Standards Coordinating Body in Regenerative Medicine and Advanced Therapies. The Standards Coordinating Body (SCB) includes membership of the entire cross-section of regenerative medicine stakeholders. FACT was pleased to join as a charter member, and will organize its efforts as part of a consortium of non-government stakeholders that seeks to partner with one or more government organizations and regulatory agencies to coordinate consensus standards development efforts. More specifically, the SCB seeks to enable more efficient and successful clinical and commercial development of cellular/gene and regenerative medicine therapies through coordinating and prioritizing development of national/international standards for measurement assurance (among other objectives).
The interorganizational Donor History Questionnaire materials have been updated to reflect recommendations made by the FDA’s Guidance for Industry: “Revised Recommendations for Determining Eligibility of Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products Who Have Received Human-Derived Clotting Factor Concentrates,” published in November 2016.
The Donor History Questionnaire (DHQ) materials were developed to screen allogeneic HPC donors for communicable disease risk factors in accordance with requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), AABB, FACT, and the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP).
The FDA does not mandate use of any particular tool to fulfill donor screening requirements for communicable disease risks and has determined that “official” recognition of DHQ materials in a guidance document is not warranted. The task force believes the DHQ materials, which are harmonized with applicable regulations and guidance documents, will optimize donor comprehension of the questions and provide donor historians with the tools needed to evaluate donor responses. Facilities should read the “User Instructions” carefully before adopting the materials for use.
When a facility implements a new version of these DHQ materials, it should follow its established change control process for the incorporation of the new DHQ materials. The change control process should address validation of the use of the new version with other existing processes and appropriate staff training.
The FDA hearing to obtain comments on the four draft guidance documents relating to the regulation of human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps) occurred on September 12-13, 2016. Dr. Phyllis Warkentin, FACT’s Chief Medical Officer, spoke on behalf of FACT and presented the following comments to the FDA:
- FDA should fulfill its responsibilities to protect patients in search of cellular therapies. FACT supports our parent society, ISCT, in its position on unproven therapies and agree on the importance of providing adequate education for patients. Development of professional standards and voluntary accreditation can play an important role in providing a bridge from basic research to clinical application.
- The tiered unified approach to HCT/P regulation fails to acknowledge the complexity of some tissues with multiple native functions and many cell types. It is difficult to strictly categorize complex tissues such as adipose tissue as only structural or cellular. Possible solutions to this problem include:
- Determination of “homologous use” could be not dependent on initial categorization of the whole tissue, but allow for cells and structural elements to be considered individually. The term “such HCT/P” could then be used to apply to either the cells or the structural elements, depending on intended use in the recipient.
- The term “homologous use” could be broadened to include any function or functions performed in the donor, not only the “basic function”.
- The Agency could recognize “standard of care” exceptions for certain procedures that have long been in place without such tissue regulation; those procedures in which data exist related to practitioners, procedures, and safety. Breast reconstruction is an example of this potential exception.
- There appear to be some inconsistencies in the definitions and examples of homologous use that would benefit from clarification.
- Although various phrases are used for the definition of homologous use, such as “perform the same basic function or functions” and “perform one or more of the same basic functions,” the examples seem to ignore the concept of more than one function of a tissue.
- The following example is also confusing to many: the guidance documents consider it to be non-homologous to put adipose tissue into breast tissue, since the basic function of the breast is lactation, ignoring the role of fat in support and shape. Yet it is considered to be homologous to put islets into liver, even though the primary function of liver is not glucose homeostasis.
- FACT suggests that the Agency expand upon its expectation for cord tissue, to include which regulations apply and when they apply, based upon the processes in place. For example, cord tissue is often collected, cryopreserved, and stored as whole tissue when the future use is undetermined at collection and storage, but it is likely intended for patient treatment. To ensure this tissue is considered to be a usable starting material in the future, the current regulatory pathway is unclear. In contrast, cord tissue may be significantly processed after collection, prior to cryopreservation and stored with the clear intent to use as MSCs or other product for an undetermined recipient.
- International harmonization is important to facilitate product development and world-wide availability of cell-based therapies for patients.
Dr. Warkentin’s full presentation is available online.
The Advancing Standards in Regenerative Medicine Act directs the Secretary of the United States Health and Human Services Agency to establish a public-private Standards Coordinating Body in Regenerative Medicine and Advanced Therapies. The function of the body is defined as (1) identify opportunities for the development of laboratory regulatory science research and documentary standards that the Secretary determines would support the development, evaluation, and review of regenerative medicine products; and (2) work with such Standards Coordinating Body, as appropriate, in the development of standards described in paragraph (1).
The Standards Coordinating Body (SCB) includes membership of the entire cross-section of regenerative medicine stakeholders. FACT was pleased to join as a charter member, and will organize its efforts as part of a consortium of non-government stakeholders that seeks to partner with one or more government organizations and regulatory agencies to coordinate consensus standards development efforts. More specifically, the SCB seeks to enable more efficient and successful clinical and commercial development of cellular/gene and regenerative medicine therapies through coordinating and prioritizing development of national/international standards for measurement assurance (among other objectives).
As the SCB is formalized in the coming months, FACT will announce milestones and initiatives to its stakeholders.
Several organizations collaborate to create a standardized tool to screen allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) donors and cord blood donors for communicable disease risk factors in accordance with the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), FACT, AABB, and the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). Both the HPC and cord blood questionnaires were recently revised to include recommendations made by the FDA’s Guidance for Industry: “Donor Screening Recommendations to Reduce the Risk of Transmission of Zika Virus by Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products.
When implementing the revised questionnaire and related materials, comply with established change control processes, including document control and personnel training. Changes made to the materials are listed in accompanying charts.
Throughout the past few months, the FDA has released numerous final and draft guidances that are pertinent to cellular therapy. The following are summaries of recent documents.
Final Guidance on Testing for Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
The FDA published updated recommendations concerning donor testing for evidence of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection, the etiologic agent of syphilis. As required under 21 CFR 1271.80(a) and (c) (§ 1271.80(a) and (c)), testing must be performed using appropriate FDA-licensed, approved, or cleared donor screening tests, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, unless an exception to this requirement applies under 21 CFR 1271.90. This guidance clarifies that the FDA does not consider cleared or approved diagnostic tests or pre-amendment devices (which have not been licensed, approved, or cleared) to be adequate for use in donor testing for T. pallidum infection under the criteria specified in § 1271.80(c).
Draft Guidance on Testing for West Nile Virus
The FDA also announced the availability of a draft document entitled “Use of Nucleic Acid Tests to Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus from Living Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps); Draft Guidance for Industry.”
The FDA recommends the use of an FDA-licensed nucleic acid test (NAT) to test living donors of HCT/Ps for evidence of infection with West Nile Virus (WNV) to reduce the risk of transmission to recipients.
Draft Guidance on Deviation Reporting
The Food and Drug Administration announced the availability of a draft document entitled “Deviation Reporting for Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products Regulated Solely Under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and 21 CFR part 1271; Draft Guidance for Industry.”
The draft guidance document provides certain establishments that manufacture non-reproductive human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), regulated solely under the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) and under FDA regulations, with recommendations and relevant examples for complying with the requirements to report HCT/P deviations.
Final Guidance on Investigating and Reporting Adverse Reactions
The FDA published finalized guidance entitled, “Investigating and Reporting Adverse Reactions Related to Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) Regulated Solely Under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and 21 CFR part 1271; Guidance for Industry.” The guidance document provides establishments that manufacture HCT/Ps for which no premarket submissions are required with recommendations for complying with the requirements for investigating and reporting adverse reactions involving communicable disease in recipients of these HCT/Ps. The guidance also provides updated information specific to reporting adverse reactions related to HCT/Ps to supplement the general instructions accompanying the MedWatch mandatory reporting form, Form FDA 3500A.
Draft Guidance regarding Homologous Use of HCT/Ps
The FDA announced the availability of, “Homologous Use of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff.” The draft guidance document provides human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based product (HCT/P) manufacturers, health care providers, and FDA staff with recommendations for applying the criterion of “homologous use” as it applies to HCT/Ps. Comments must be submitted by September 27, 2016.
Draft Guidances Reopened for Public Comment
The FDA is again accepting comments for the following draft guidance documents. Comments must be submitted by September 27, 2106.
- Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products From Adipose Tissue: Regulatory Considerations; Draft Guidance for Industry
- Minimal Manipulation of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff
- Same Surgical Procedure Exception: Questions and Answers Regarding the Scope of the Exception; Draft Guidance for Industry